With the theme of “Transforming Our Built Environment through Innovation and Integration: Putting Ideas into Action”, 50+ academic researches and business cases in poster format are grouped into 12 Conference Tracks. The posters will be displayed at the conference venue (2/F and 4/F, outside the Parallel Sessions venue).

Poster no.: 1
Vertical Farm: Integrating Multifunctional Microalgae Cultivation into the Sustainable Built Environment
LEE Tzan-chain, Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

The world's first algae-powered has been built in Hamburg, Germany. In the building, microalgae are cultivated in the glass elements that make up its “bio skin”. Microalgae are sustainable energy source for biofuel production that can transfer solar energy to chemical energy by photosynthesis. Microalgae are known to exhibit 20-fold higher biomass production than agricultural crop plants. Microalgae can culture in glucose-contained culture medium in dark condition, it is similar fermentation culture and produce many commercial products, e.g. DHA, lutein, biodiesel and biomedical compound.
In this article, I would like to share an idea about “How to design a microalgae-powered sustainable building that can utilize microalgae more efficiency”, including increase biomass of microalgae in light-culture condition, and produce commercial products in high cell-density culture in dark-culture condition. This idea might help microalgae sustainable building will be become a multifunctional building.

Poster no.: 2
Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Potentials and Performance in 4 University Campuses
Chanikarn YIMPRAYOON, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University, Thailand

Photovoltaic (PV) system installation has grown exponentially in the last few years because of growing concerns about the environmental impacts from fossil fuel and nuclear energy. Solar energy is abundant, especially in locations near the Equator. Grid-connected PV system prices are also decreasing, so many projects found it was affordable. Using renewable energy is also a key a project can use to demonstrate commitment to sustainable development. A common problem in Thailand in promoting the use of grid-connected PV systems is the unpredictable incentive program from the government and the lack of confidence in the system with a few demonstration case studies. Universities as educational institutes could be pioneers in successful large installation demonstration projects.
Kasetsart University is the largest public university in Thailand with four teaching campuses across the country and several research stations, mostly in agricultural fields. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of each campus in accommodating rooftop PV. The results demonstrate the maximum PV installation potential of each campus, as well as the specific installation location for each building, the predicted annual electricity production, and the feasibility of the installation. However, more incentive programs or the integration of PV systems into building envelopes could make the investment return more favourable. The results could help other similar university campuses evaluate their potential, moving toward self-sustainable energy production as demonstration projects in the communities are successful, and encourage more PV installation in the country.

Poster no.: 3
Building High on Sustainable Use of Water: Hong Kong’s Effort
Stephen CATLIN Kit-wai, Water Supplies Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR
KWAN Kai-yin, Water Supplies Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR

To attain sustainable use of water to meet the challenge of climate change, Hong Kong is transforming itself into a water efficient society.  However, success will require actions at various levels. This paper introduces Hong Kong’s efforts pitched at individual buildings, driving them to perform better for efficient and sustainable use of water through an array of measures. On the supply side, not only does the Government advocate the use of sustainable water resources such as recycled grey water and harvested rainwater, but private sectors are also encouraged through a green building certification scheme to implement water recycling in new developments.  In the meantime, existing buildings are offered with other options on the demand side. Flow controllers are distributed and installed to transform taps and showers into water-saving ones, and water efficiency audits are conducted to guide facilities and trades within buildings to more efficient use of water. Use of water efficient products is being promoted through the voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme with work in progress on mandating their use in new developments and major renovation.  With an aim to enhancing water loss management in inside service, a new voluntary scheme for buildings on leak detection is also being developed.  Riding on the advancement in the information and communication technology, the pilot scheme on use of smart water meters can facilitate consumers’ self-monitoring of water consumption for conservation and loss reduction. The above measures which touch on the hardware side are coupled with software promotional elements, as it is believed that buildings can only truly make great strides in conservation if their occupants are on the same track. With buildings becoming more water-efficient and occupants more water-conscious, a sustainable use of water can be realised with holistic actions from city, building and individual levels in Hong Kong.

Poster no.: 4
Costs and Benefits of Implementing Green Building Policy
FAN Ke, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
GU Wei, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Queena QIAN, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Edwin CHAN, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR

Green building (GB) policies have been implemented to promote GB and address climate change. Most of the existing literatures have studied the costs and benefits of developing GB, without considerations of GB policies’ impacts. This paper aims to study costs and benefits of implementing GB policy from developers’ perspective. It takes the Gross Floor Area (GFA) Concession, which is a popular policy and has been implemented in the US, Singapore and Hong Kong, as an example, to compare its implementation in three regions and analyze how it affects developers’ costs and benefits. Findings show that Hong Kong has relatively lower threshold to acquire GFA concession for developers and it is the right time to adjust the GFA concession incentive to reflect the market transformation and further encourage developers to go for higher levels of GB. 

Poster no.: 5
A Framework towards Low-carbon Heritage Conservation of Hong Kong: with Analysis of Embodied Carbon
GUO Nan, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR  
GU Wei, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Edwin CHAN, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Esther YUNG, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR

Since the industrial revolution, increasing amount of CO2 has been released due to the human economic activities. The human society attempt to find a balance in the game of protection and development, which not only protects the unique patterns and traditional way of life, but also allows the residents living here to enjoy the convenience that modern life has brought. To maintain and release the new vitality of the city, and tap the potential value and attraction, and respect the ecological environment, as well as make rational use of the advantages of the geographical environment in order to establish a green and sustainable living environment. Compared to new buildings, conservation projects can reuse the existing constructions’ fabric, which can reduce construction debris through the reclamation of carbon embodied in the existing materials. The paper analyzes average embodied carbon intensities and construction costs differences of the major building components between new-build projects and heritage conservations. It aims to establish a carbon cycle model through “calculate-reduce-offset” for the goal of low-carbon city. The authors stress that this framework can enable balanced decision-makings concerning heritage buildings redevelopment in the context of environmental and economic sustainability.

Poster no.: 6
A Discussion on the Benefits of Environment Performance of the Promotion of Kaohsiung Green Building Specialties Policy -the Case Study on Residential Building in Kaohsiung City
KUO Yi-chun, Shu Te University, Taiwan
OU Po-cheng, Shu Te University, Taiwan
SHIE Chih-chang, Kaohsiung City Government, Taiwan
SHIE Yu-chun, Kaohsiung City Government, Taiwan

"Water resource is the necessary natural resource for the development of a country’s economy.  According International Water Association, the total amount of annual precipitation in Taiwan is 2.6 times of the average amount of annual precipitation in all countries in the world. Thus, Taiwan should not suffer from water scarcity. However, Taiwan ranks as the 18th country with physical water scarcity.
Microclimate observation data is acquired from Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan in this research study. Other than analyzing and calculating the information from the database in order to identify the exterior microclimatic factors, the volume of the rainwater collection tanks in Kaohsiung will be calculated for its accuracy in correlation with rainwater overflow and tap water replenishment.  Finally, the characteristics of Kaohsiung microclimatic factors collected in this research will be reflected with quantitative data on to the actual design for buildings in Kaohsiung. The main focuses of this research are the following:
1. Analyze foundational microclimatic data in Kaohsiung
2. The calculation of the volume of the rainwater collection tanks in Kaohsiung
3. Provide method to incorporate and reconfigure rainwater collection tanks in accordance with Kaohsiung characteristics.

Poster no.: 7
Thermal Behavior of a Low-Cost House Coated With Transparent Infrared Reflective Paint
Ochuko Kelvin OVEREN, Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa
Edson Leroy MEYER, Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa
Golden MAKAKA, Physics Department, University of Fort Hare, South Africa

Low-cost housing was introduced in South Africa by the newly elected government in 1994 as part of the reconstruction and development programme. Uncontrolled heat transfer in the thermal envelope of these houses result in indoor thermal discomfort. To maintain indoor thermal comfort, occupants spend excessive amount of energy on space heating. Due to total internal reflection, transparent coats can be used to reduce heat propagation through the thermal envelope. This study presents the thermal behavior of a low-cost house with the walls inner surface coated with transparent infrared reflective paint. The thermo-optical properties of the paint were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy/ Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and thermal photographic technique. Meteorological indoor and ambient parameters such as; air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction of a low-cost house were monitored. The monitoring period covers both winter and summer seasons before and after coating. The SEM image reveals that the coat is transparent to light. The presence of Al as Al2O3 and other elements were revealed by the EDX spectrum. In the winter season, the indoor heating degree hours were 6674.72 °C h, equivalent to 4.86 kWh/m2. It was found to drop by 56% with a heating demand of 2.15 kWh/m2 and 2954.33 heating degree hours, after coating. The paint was able to reduce heat lost through the building walls. It could serve as an immediate and long term remedy to low-cost housing and the emerging energy crisis in South Africa.

Poster no.: 8
Dynamic Solar Shading in Sustainable Buildings
Anders HALL, SOMFY International; European Solar Shading Organization

Never before has there been such a focus on designing buildings that work in a responsible and sustainable way. Both for the occupants, the owner and the environment. It is a well-known fact today that buildings account for significant part of the energy consumption in society. Combine this with the issues we face connected to global climate, CO2 emissions, urbanization and overheating of buildings – and the challenge becomes obvious.
How can we assure that our buildings become energy efficient, sustainable providing a healthy working and living environment?
This Paper does not claim to have “the solution” but aims to describe an important contribution answering to this challenge. How smart and dynamic solar shading is a vital component in both new and existing buildings for health and sustainability.
Yet solar shading alone will not solve the problems. The solution lies in an intelligent combination of different measures, managed via a holistic planning/execution approach supported by local regulation and green rating systems. We will take a closer look at some of the key factors for success based on the knowledge and experience gathered via the international work done by ES-SO (the European Solar Shading organization.)

Poster no.: 9
The Third Success Factor of Renovations with Energy Ambitions
Anke VAN HAL, Nyenrode Business University, The Netherlands; Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Everyone acknowledges the importance of sufficient financial resources and well-functioning technologies when it comes to renovation processes with energy ambitions. However, Dutch experiences show that these two factors alone do not automatically result in success. More is needed, and this ‘more’ has to do with less concrete, but in the existing living environment very influential factors such as emotions and wellbeing. This hard to grasp factor is called ‘the third success factor of energy friendly renovation processes’.
In the Netherlands, the questions ‘What exactly is this third success factor?’ and ‘How to integrate knowledge about this third success factor in the rational-oriented building industry?’ have been put high on the agenda of people who want to achieve the national energy goals related to the built environment. Research that combines knowledge from human sciences with energy efficient renovation experiences, the development of new educational methods, and a search for success stories has been part of joined efforts to find answers to these questions. A national knowledge platform called ‘HomeMates’ has been established to bundle and share all these findings.
The Dutch experiences are described and discussed in this paper. They are also linked to Canadian experiences, based on the results of a project of Parallel52⁰, the Dutch Canadian Sustainable Building and Planning network. In this project, Dutch findings and findings in the Toronto area were compared and discussed.

Poster no.: 10
Thermal Performance as a Parameter of Choice of Materials: Brazilian Antartic Station
Bruna Perovano SIRTULI, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil
Filipe Galina COSTALONGA, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil
Cristina Engel de ALVAREZ, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil
Edna Aparecida NICO-RODRIGES, Universidade +A53Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil

In the atypical context of Antarctica, it must be considered the specific environmental conditions of the region in order to make the correct selection of more sustainable and efficient materials. Among them, there are the climatic characteristics, the isolation and the need to preserve the natural environment. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the thermal performance and the energy efficiency of new buildings of the EACF, (Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station), expected to be finished in 2018, aiming to get and establish parameters for the new Brazilian buildings in Antarctica. To obtain the performance results of the station it was used the software Design Builder, and the study was conducted in two stages: at the first, the definition of the model, the characteristics and the properties of the materials specified in the project; and in the second stage it was determined the methodology for evaluations and the simulations.. The results demonstrated the performance of the building envelope, allowing to evaluate the materials used, pointing out possible improvements. Alternatively it was proposed to replace the galvanized steel coating specified for the envelope, for PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), material that showed better results regarding the thermal performance and sustainability indicators.

Poster no.: 11
Renovation of Sheung Shui Staff Quarters – Green Building Actions Echoed by the Contractor
LI Siu-lung, Water Supplies Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR

The Sheung Shui Staff Quarters of Water Supplies Department (WSD), which comprise three low-rise buildings (up to 3-storey high with total construction floor area of 1,027m2), were built in 1985. They were situated along the eastern edge of the Sheung Shui Water Treatment Works (WTW).  The Quarters were allocated to the operational staff.  However, the demand of the Quarters were no longer required for operational need in recent years with the improved transport to the WTW. WSD decided in 2015 to convert the Quarters into the office of a maintenance depot for use by the waterworks maintenance term contract for more gainful use of the buildings.
The conversion project involved renovation of the buildings to restore their serviceability and to provide new lighting, ventilation and power system for use of the office. In line with the Government’s drive for promoting green building, the project adopted sustainable design by using integrated green building disposition and technologies with due consideration for the operational need and cost-effectiveness.
Having preliminarily assessed by the consultant on the design of the office of the maintenance depot against various aspects of environmental performance (including site aspects, materials aspects, energy use, water use, indoor environmental quality and innovations), this project could readily attain a Silver rating under the BEAM plus building environmental assessment system.  In addition, the maintenance term contractor who would use the office decided to install a photovoltaic system at the roofs of the buildings at its own cost for energy saving.  With this additional feature, the project was eligible to apply for a higher (i.e. Gold) rating.
The project commenced in December 2015 for substantial completion by October 2016.

Poster no.: 12
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Central Kowloon Route Project
LAM Man-san, Highways Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR
Franki C K CHIU, Arup, Hong Kong SAR

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China (The Government of the Hong Kong SAR) is committed to sustainable development.  The Central Kowloon Route (CKR) is a 4.7 km long dual 3-lane trunk road linking the Yau Ma Tei Interchange in West Kowloon with the road network in the Kai Tak Development and Kowloon Bay in East Kowloon.  The CKR will relieve traffic congestion on existing major east-west corridors, enhance linkage amongst districts and support various developments in Kowloon.  The CKR will reduce the number of vehicles using the existing major east-west corridors and alleviate the noise and air pollution arising from the existing traffic thus bringing significant overall environmental benefits.  In this paper, the authors will present the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process of the CKR Project and focus on the approaches to protect the environment through early considerations of environmentally friendly designs, advanced air purification systems, and prevention of adverse environmental consequences in order to achieve key decision makings throughout the entire life cycle of a designated project.  This paper also highlights the further sustainable development of the Project after the EIA approval including re-use of land-based marine sediments and green building design.

Poster no.: 13
A Comparison on Two Certification Systems: Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) and Building Environmental Assessment Method (BEAM) on Green Building In Hong Kong
Ophelia CHU Ka-wai, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR
Richard CHEUNG Yun-hing, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR

There are totally 53,432 buildings in Hong Kong, while 25% are public sector and 75% are private sectors, 1.5% of buildings have accredited or registered to BEAM plus certification system and 0.34% have accredited or registered to LEED certification system. And sharp increase of BEAM plus and LEED newly registered projects were record in 2010 and 2013 respectively pointed out the increased concern on green building in the recent years. Variety of research paper were focusing on the credits category and usefulness of LEED building, however there was a research gap showing the usefulness of the BEAM plus system. Therefore, in order to investigate the usefulness of two system, the differences between BEAM plus and LEED systems in the aspect of Water Management, Materials and Indoor Environmental Quality in this dissertation. The research findings based on the difference between two systems indicated the BEAM plus system was more suitable to Hong Kong which because of the BEAM plus has always subjected to adjustment immediately upon to any changes of the regulation of Hong Kong such as Water Quality Objectives due to the LEAD water incident. And the major problem of the government policy was the extra granting of GFA is going to further tightening the land supply in Hong Kong in the future. Therefore, recommendation on reduction of GFA and alternative incentives were presented for the government is also discussed in this paper. 

Poster no.: 14
Research on Emission Evaluation Classification of Healthy Green Building Materials Label in Taiwan
CHEN Cheng-chen, Department of Interior Design, Tung Fang Design Institute, Taiwan
LEE Ching-chang, Department of Environmental Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
CHEN Jui-ling, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of Inteior, Taiwan

Under the subtropical climate of Taiwan, indoor building materials have a significant impact on the in-door air quality, which leads to health problems and increased risks of cancer. Currently, the “Green building materials labels” and the Indoor Air Quality Act have been promoted to control the source of pollution, namely the fugitive pollutants of building materials and the air concentration in the indoor space. This study adopted the fugitive emission database of 645 pieces of building materials with a green label, test and verification of fugitive emission of 7 small pieces of building materials, numerical statistics and analysis, and literature analysis to research the emission evaluation classification of fugitive TVOC from green building materials label in Taiwan. The result shows newly emission evaluation classification of Healthy Green Building Materials Label is “E1 (less than 0.005 mg/m2* hr), E2(0.005-0.06 mg/m2* hr), and E3(0.06-0.19mg/m2* hr)”.

Poster no.: 15
Sustainability Assessment: An Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Interference System Approach
TAN Yongtao, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
SHUAI Chenyang, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
SHUAI Chenyang, Chongqing University, Mainland China
JIAO Liudan, Chongqing Jiao Tong University, Mainland China
SHEN Liyin, Chongqing University, Mainland China

Urbanization especially in developing countries is a major driver for economic and social development. However, it has induced major concerns from past urbanization experiences, such as air pollution, traffic congestion, and habitat destruction. Such adverse effects caused by urbanization have generated greater pressures on governments to re-think their urban development policies to be sustainable ones. Within this context, various sustainability assessment methods have been developed by existing studies. Due to the dynamic features of sustainable development, fuzzy logic has been widely used for measuring sustainability performance. However, it is argued that most studies are using pre-defined simple linear membership functions and fuzzy rules which are mostly based on experts’ knowledge. The assessment results may not reflect the real sustainability performance. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new approach for induction of membership functions and fuzzy rules. This paper aims to introduce an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) approach for city level sustainability assessment. The membership functions and fuzzy rules are generated from 185 training samples. The results show that the new ranking of the selected 185 cities in China is close to the original with minor differences. It indicates that the new approach is valid and effective.

Poster no.: 16
Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review of Models and Tools at the Precinct Scale
Angela Maria ROJAS-AREVALO, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Lu AYE, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Seona CANDY, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Although urban areas cover only 3% of the earth’s land surface, they are responsible for over 70% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from energy use. Cities are versatile, dynamic and complex. Therefore, implementations of low carbon initiatives at city scale are challenging and at times impractical. From the local administration perspective, the precinct scale represents a manageable operational scale for governance, urban planning and socio-technical innovations. There are various methods for quantification of GHGE at building, precinct, city and national scales, but few target the complexity and dynamics of the urban area, especially at the precinct scale. The aim of this paper is to identify a suitable quantification method for the precinct scale. The method should be able to determine the changes in GHGE due to implementations of low carbon policies and other strategies. This paper reviews the available methods for quantification of GHGE and highlights their challenges and limitations. Since urban areas need a system thinking approach, this review outlines how the methods analyse complex systems, such as System Dynamics (SD).

Poster no.: 17
Climate Responsiveness and Facade Design of AQUA-Certified School Buildings
Doris C.C.K. KOWALTOWSKI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil
Leticia de Oliveira NEVES, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil
Vanessa Gomes DA SILVA, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil
Giseli Mary COLLETO, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil

Education is an important element to bring about social, economic and technological changes in any country. The physical infrastructure of schools is however seldom part of education improvement strategies in countries like Brazil. Public school buildings in the state of São Paulo are managed by its Foundation for Education Development (FDE). In 2010 FDE required that all new buildings were certified under AQUA, the French HQE environmental rating scheme adapted to Brazilian contexts. Building certification was devised as an opportunity to decrease environmental impacts, while improving indoor environment quality, among other performance aspects. Our research goals were to investigate if the certification requirements have a tangible positive impact on building quality, induce climate responsive architecture and provide adequate and comfortable environments for education. Nineteen FDE projects currently seeking AQUA certification were studied. First, we analysed the sample regarding climate responsiveness and critical performance aspects for learning environments. Then, we ran thermal and daylight simulations for a representative classroom to assess contribution from the designed shading devices. Our analysis revealed that orientation of school buildings to suit local climates is neglected. Double loaded corridor floor plans are typically adopted even though they prevent cross-ventilation in classrooms. Solar absorptance of external walls is not compliant in half of the cases. Finally, typical shading device design improves thermal conditions of optimally oriented classrooms, but impairs daylight harvesting in over half of the occupied time. The hypothesis was that AQUA certification of public school buildings would have significant effect on design elements which contribute to environmental comfort conditions. This was not confirmed. The certification had limited capacity to induce climate responsive architecture. For this reason, besides certifications the design process needs enhancement. Design decisions impact must learn from assessment loops, simulations and inputs from users and specialists alike. Finally, building assessment data should inform new school building projects, to guarantee that we are actually advancing in the right direction.

Poster no.: 18
Project Guidelines for Construction of Biodigesters in Poor Communities in Brasil
Lizelda Maria MENDONÇA SOUTO, Polytechnic School of University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Sérgio PERES, Polytechnic School of University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Emilia KOHLMAN-RABBANI, Polytechnic School of University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Viviany NOGUEIRA, Polytechnic School of University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Ana Rita DRUMMOND, Polytechnic School of University of Pernambuco, Brazil

In today’s materialistic society, there is a constant pressure to consume goods and services without taking into account that this unbridled acquisition will lead to an increase in the generation of solid waste that, in most cases, will not be properly disposed of, culminating in the proliferation of vectors for Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya, Leptospirosis, and Meningitis, as well as structural problems such as flooding and contamination of soil and groundwater. However, most wastes contains organic materials with the potential to produce biogas that can be used to generate electricity. When sanitation is not properly managed it can cause incalculable damage to the environment, to public health, to the population, and to the urban order. This study presents projectual guidelines for sustainability of low income communities in urban areas through the installation of biodigesters as an alternative for the proper disposal of their organic solid waste and sewage in order to improve sanitation and enable the generation of biogas and power for such communities. The guidelines were elaborated based on interviews with community leaders, the socioeconomic profile of community residents, the amount of waste generated, sewage drainage problems, availability of open areas adequate for the installation of biodigesters, the post-installation maintenance manual, as well as an analysis of the Brazilian laws and regulations that standardize the construction aspects. The proposed guidelines are intended to assist managers in decision making with regard to sanitation and generation of biogas from waste, which is currently a problem for local development.

Poster no.: 19
Development of Solar Photovoltaic Pavement Panels for Application on the Green Deck 
MA Tao, Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
YANG Hongxing, Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
LU Lin, Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR

Hong Kong, locating at a lower latitude area, is suitable for solar energy application, especially building-integrated solar photovoltaic (BIPV) application for power generation in urban environment. A BIPV system is highly dependent on available installation area of a building because usually the PV panels are placed on roofs or vertical facade of a building due to their broad and open surfaces for receiving more sunlight. However, the available roof and vertical facade area for PV installation in the proposed Green Deck is very limited due to green areas and other facilities. Therefore, in this study, the walkable solar PV panel is proposed for application in the pavements and cycling tracks, which receive a lot of sunshine and can be sued for power generation as well. This is a green and innovative solution to integrate sustainable energy technology into the Green Deck and it can help to achieve the target of low carbon city in Hong Kong. The major research activities are presented in this study, including literature review on available technologies, configuration design, prototype preparation, electrical, and thermal performance tests. Results show that the developed PV pavement panel has satisfactory performance in solar energy conversion efficiency and other performance. 

Poster no.: 20
Study on the Predictive Model and Adjustment Strategies of Indoor Environment for Susceptible Populations
LU Mei-chen, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
TSAY Yaw-shyan, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
SU Huey-jen, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
HSU Nai-yun, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Recently, the occurrence of extreme weather events has gradually increased in many areas due to climate change. Furthermore, human health problems are resulting from such dramatic climate changes, as noted in hospital emergency visits and attendance rates after the occurrence of extreme events. In general, previous studies have used outdoor climatic data from ambient stations to assess the human health risks caused by extreme events. However, elderly people are often more vulnerable to heat exposure and thus spend most of their time indoors. This study aims to propose a predictive model to determine the indoor climate from weather forecasts in order to reduce health risks through the development of a warning system for susceptible populations.
In the present study, we propose a predictive model based on building energy simulations (EnergyPlus) and then performed field measurements of residential buildings to gather one year of data for verification. We further applied the simulation model in order to study the influence of changing building construction/materials in relation to adjusting the climate. Finally, we examined improvements made to indoor environments and their effect on the health risk of the susceptible population. The results demonstrate that not only can the indoor environment be properly predicted by the building energy simulation model, but also that improving thermal insulation, ventilation, and vertical greenery can improve the indoor environment, thus resulting in reduced health risks of the susceptible population. 

Poster no.: 21
Improvement Strategy of Urban Street Thermal Environment
WANG Wen-an, Tamkang University, Taiwan

Owing to the increase in building structures and road system, lack of sufficient green area in urban environment, imperviousness of ground surface and large amount of waste heat, a large heat retainer has been fabricated, which has resulted in the heat island effect. This research mainly focuses on the geographic feature of the urban buildings groups in its investigation of the outdoor thermal environment. This research used factors such as improving the reflectivity of the building materials, increasing the permeable rate of the paving material and planting arbours as shade trees as the design variables. Moreover, the research has employed the Computational Fluid Dynamics as the prediction and analysis tool to analyze the feasibility and efficiency in order to improve cooling through the design variables in the urban street canyons where there is only limited room for improvement. This research then proposes the guidelines which help in reducing the heat island effect based on the analysis results. Partly from the research results, the wind speed can improve the cooling effect of the variables. Compared with the preset reference temperature, it was observed that 5% discomfort zone can be improved through improving the reflectivity of the building materials, 13% through improving the permeable rate of the paving material and 40% through the shade from arbours, which is the maximum.

Poster no.: 22
Study of Climate Adaptive Design of Green Rural Houses in South Shaanxi Province
CAI Wei, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
HAN Yue, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
LIU Yi, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
ZHOU Haoran, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
WANG Runsheng, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China

This paper explored on the climate adaptive design of green rural houses in the south Shaanxi province through literature review, field investigation, analysis and summarization methods. Pattern language of architecture design which reflect climate adaptive features and regional architectural characteristics in existing local traditional rural houses were extracted and summarized. Influencing factors were analyzed, relevant design strategies and their tentative application in the researched region are proposed. Results of this work is expected to provide references for the green rural houses design in south Shaanxi province and other regions with similar climate features.

Poster no.: 23
Study on Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Products with a Green Building Material Label in Taiwan
TSAY Yaw-shyan, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan
CHANG Yi-hsuan, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan

Taiwan’s government implemented the Green Building Material (GBM) Labelling policy in 2004, and1,448 labels of 10,114 products had already been certified by December 2015. Since 2010, the building code has enforced the mandatory usage of 45% GBM products in the interiors and 10% in the exteriors of public buildings. The reputation of GBML products has been improving recently, and many consumers are requesting the use of GBM products in private buildings as well. Although some industrial investigation studies have been carried out to determine the economic effect of green business in relation to GBM policy, few studies have focused on the value of GBM for consumers.
In this study, we used the contingent valuation method (CVM) to perform a survey of consumers, in which the willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) of GBM were calculated. According to the results, the WTP for building material products with GBM was 13.6%, products of a famous brand was 12.2%, and products with both GBM and a famous brand was 15.9%, suggesting that the value of GBM is superior to that of a famous brand and that the label is highly regarded by consumers. On the other hand, the WTA of products without a GBM was 18.5%, without a famous brand was 18.8%, and products without either was 22.8%, thus indicating a positive tendency toward green consumption.
Finally, we performed Spearman’s correlation analysis and found that the WTP of GBM was correlated to consumers’ education and residence (p≤0.05), while the WTP of famous brands was positively correlated to household income (p≤0.01). A correlation between the WTA of famous brand and education was also found (p≤0.05) in this study. These results can serve as a reference for building material industries that participate in green business. 

Poster no.: 24
Improving The Relationship Between Eco-Design and Environmental Education – A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Taiwan
HUANG Wei-chih, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
TSAY Yaw-shyan, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
HO Shin-jia, Center for General Education, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
HO Yen-yi, Department of Interior Design, Shu-Te University, Taiwan

For more than 10 years, Taiwan has promoted environmental education in its schools and has even incorporated it into the curriculum guidelines for compulsory education of grades 1-9. Previous studies on the theory of education have suggested that by treating school campuses as a three-dimensional textbook, architects’ designs can potentially provide many benefits for environmental education activities. The education provided in elementary schools is crucial for developing both children’s personalities and their physical bodies. Teachers can use a variety of methods to provide environmental education and can even integrate the campus facilities/ space to improve the effectiveness of children's learning, thus influencing the practice of environmental education. Therefore, determining how to implement environmental education concepts in campus design is vital for architects.
In this study, we propose an assessment framework for elementary schools based on a reference review, which includes green campus design principles, children's learning development, and Taiwan’s eco-school reform project indicators. We then used the resulting framework to assess the facilities/ space of 13 exiting campuses designed by famous architects or that had received funding from eco-school projects. The results showed that the architects’ design strategies for eco-schools may not be appropriate for environmental education, and this study’s proposed framework can provide a better thought process for relevant architects.

Poster no.: 25
Benefits of and Barriers to Green Building Implementation in Hong Kong
HUO Xiaosen, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Ann TW YU, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR

Green building is an essential component of sustainable development, but the benefits of and barriers to green building implementation in Hong Kong are unclear. A literature review and in-depth interviews were conducted to address this gap in our knowledge. The literature review results suggest that green building implementation leads to a reduction in lifecycle costs, occupant health and efficiency improvements, greater energy savings and efficiency, fewer environmental effects, and tax and market benefits. The barriers to such implementation include high initial costs, a lack of awareness and knowledge, a lack of financial incentives and government support, stakeholder conflicts, uncertainty and risks, and possible project delays. To address the impediments and promote green building implementation in Hong Kong, four interviews with green building specialists in Hong Kong were conducted, with attention paid to the distinct characteristics. The results suggest that the joint efforts of the Hong Kong Green Building Council and the government have led to some green building achievements in Hong Kong, although significant barriers remain, including high initial costs, insufficient market transformation, knowledge gaps, a lack of incentives for existing buildings and the public, and uncertainties and risks. Solutions to these urgent problems are proposed from the perspective of practitioners in green building. Market transformation can be driven based on the establishment of related policies and regulations by the government. The public mind-set and behaviours can be changed through education initiatives. More incentives should be issued to promote developers to turn traditional buildings into green ones. Besides, communication platform among stakeholders should be developed including project-specific platform and industry-wide one. It is also recommended that future research may focus on how to make existing buildings more efficient or on the development of business models for effective upgrades to such buildings.

Poster no.: 26
Research on Development of a Guide for Environmental Study Classes Using Environment-conscious Technologies of School Facilities
Go MIYAZAKI, Kogakuin University, Japan
Yusuke NAKAJIMA, Kogakuin University, Japan

In late years the introduction of the environment-conscious technologies such as photovoltaic power generation is increasing in school facilities. Environment-conscious technologies are demanded to be used by environmental education. However, it is the present conditions that the mechanism of the environment-conscious technologies is out of teacher domain, so these technologies aren’t used for environmental education.
In a previous study, development of “the environment-conscious technologies guidebook” and its environmental learning contents were carried out. However, for the lack of the method of teaching and correspondence with a unit list, it was difficult for teachers to use it.
In this study, "the environment-conscious technologies guide" which incorporates an annual unit list of textbooks compliant with the environment-conscious technologies and example method of teaching was developed. The example method of teaching has time schedule and main point of teaching with some photographs and illustrations. Therefore, teachers are easy to understand the flow of the class. Using this example method of teaching, teachers can perform environmental study class by their own effort. As the result of trial classes using the guide, it was found that teachers could make documents for classes and explain them by their own effort.

Poster no.: 27
Water Use of Thin-Layer Green Roof by Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetlands
PENG Jr-jie, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
CL CHENG, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

Thin-layer green roof is irrigated by tap water supply and supplemented with rainwater as the auxiliary water supply. There have been continuous researches carried out by many domestic and foreign experts and scholars, and there have been many cases proving the water saving benefit of replacing a portion of tap water. However, green roof is still regarded as a facility consuming water resource. In this study, the thin-layer green roof integrated with vertical flow constructed wetland purification effect has been established based on the perspectives of recycling, treatment, and reclamation of water in a building in order to replace the water source of tap water irrigation. The evaluation equation has been proposed for understanding the benefit of using reclaimed water to replacing tap water. In addition to meeting the need of its own irrigation system, it can also be used for the irrigation of other facilities or the water for flushing toilets in a building such that the water demand management of planting and cultivation can be simplified. The advantages of this study is that it can achieve the short cycle of building self-management and the concept of reduction of energy consumption due to the easy access of source of slight pollution generated by a building, which will lead to the benefit of positive sustainable operation. 

Poster no.: 28
“Sponge City”, A Mental Experiment with Scientific Solution for “Sustainable Neighborhood”

With worldwide cities getting bigger and climate change threatening to bring more extreme weather, about half of China’s cities are considered water scarce or severely water scarce by UN measures and another half fail to reach national standards for flood prevention. “Sponge cities” equivalent terms to Low-impact development (LID) used in North America and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) in the UK, a re-imagination of the urban environment where almost every raindrop is captured, controlled and reused has been trendy in China. Instead of funneling rainwater away, a sponge city retains it for use. Some might be used to recharge depleted aquifers or irrigate gardens and urban farms. Some could replace the drinking water to flush toilets and clean homes.
A study recently being completed on “Sponge City” planning of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city is located in North China. The study aims to help the local government achieving the goals of storm water reduction and source runoff control. In this way, the Eco-city could retain, infiltrate and purify storm water, and fulfil the concept of “sponge city”. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was selected to simulate runoff process and assess the effect of using different combinations of LID facilities. The model result shows that the LID measure can help control 80% of the annual total runoff under the design precipitation. In consideration of high salinity in Eco-city’s water and soil, the recommended LID facilities include green roof with cistern, high level rain-parterre, ecological pond, pervious pavement and grass swale. Guideline of each kind of facility is provided as well for next stage detail design. The study demonstrates reverse-engineering a city to make it more spongey requires a mental shift back up by practical scientific solutions.

Poster no.: 29
A BIM Based Integrated BIPV Design System
YOU Qi, China Smart Construction Group, Mainland China
OUYANG Antao, China Smart Construction Group, Mainland China
BAI Yang, China Smart Construction Group, Mainland China

As one type of decentralized renewable energy system, BIPV has been widely adopted to reduce carbon emissions. BIPV design incorporates original structural analysis, power matrix design, photovoltaic panel design, etc. Factors that influence BIPV design process also include total installed capacity, construction material costs, electricity price returns, investment payback period and enterprise income. The iterative design process is time consuming and very complicated. Nowadays, Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the most promising technology for enhancing the performance and quality of construction. Ever since its gestation, BIM has promised endless prospects for people, organizations, products and processes in the construction industry. Yet there is limited use of BIM on BIPV system. In this paper, the author proposes a BIM based integrated BIPV design system and presents how the system can be used to facilitate the design process in a real project. The author finds that the system is intelligent and efficient, which can help designer make better design decisions before construction and save valuable time.

Poster no.: 30
Design Strategies for Sustainability and Integration of Water Treatment Works – Case Study of Sha Tin Water Treatment Works, Hong Kong
Aletta CHIU, Water Supplies Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR
Bevis W L MAK, AECOM Asia Company Ltd., Hong Kong SAR
Edward W K LEE, AECOM Asia Company Ltd., Hong Kong SAR

Hong Kong as an international finance centre is a fast-paced and high density community, where the development of sustainable built environments faces numerous challenges.  In-situ reprovisioning of Sha Tin Water Treatment Works – South Works is an example demonstrating how the built environment of the water treatment works is enhanced despite the challenges.
Sha Tin Water Treatment Works, comprising the South Works and North Works, is the largest treatment works in Hong Kong meeting about 30% of the total fresh water demand in the territory.  The South Works was commissioned in 1964 with a treatment capacity of 364,000 m3 per day while the North Works was commissioned in stages since 1973 increasing the treatment capacity to 1,227,000 m3 per day.  Due to the aging of plant and equipment which are approaching the end of their service life, the South Works requires major renovation and replacement to meet the growing demand.
Achieving sustainable reprovisioning of the South Works, building solutions including but not limited to onsite green building planning and massing, hydro power generator, ice storage system and Thermal Vision Based Security Surveillance (TVBSS) system enhancing energy saving and minimizing light pollution to neighbourhoods, etc. which have been considered in the design, will be discussed in this paper.

Poster no.: 31
Low-Carbon Transport Development Strategy of Coping With Climate Change-the Case of Pingtung County
CHUNG Shih-yen, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
CHANG Kuei-feng, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
CHEN Ming-chang, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
KUO Wu-wei, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
CHEN Yu-jia, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan

Pingtung County is located at the southern extremity of Taiwan. In order to cope with the impact of climate change, Pingtung County government is actively promoting the development of public transport systems, reducing of greenhouse gases caused by private transport emissions, and minimizing the impact on the environment.
Pingtung County government is not only actively seeking rail construction plan from the Center Government but also planning to expand the public transport coverage by building regional transit center, hierarchical bus network and bicycle sharing system.
The regional transit center is including one for main hub (Pingtung), two for secondary hubs (Chaozhou, Fangliao), and three for Sightseeing function hubs (Donggang, Shueimen, Hengchun). The hierarchical bus network is including main line bus, branch line bus, suburban bus, tourist bus, and Demand Responsive Transit System bus. The bicycle sharing system provides the last mile feeder service.
In order to increase public transport usage, Pingtung County Government also provides high quality, high technology, and intimately services by building bus shelters, bus information system, and executing bus service quality evaluation plan and overall marketing plan.
However, those policies will not be completed quickly. Therefore, we will determine the priority of policies by citizen demands and available resources, and promote those policies progressively to achieve the vision of transportation development of Pingtung County.

Poster no.: 32
Potential for Decreasing of Organizational Environmental Impacts: A Case Study of Czech Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Antonín LUPÍŠEK, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Vladimír KOČÍ, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
Kateřina SOJKOVÁ, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Kristina ZAKUCIOVÁ, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
Jiří TENCAR, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Miloš LAIN, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Miroslav URBAN, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Jiří CÍGLER, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic
Vladimír HORYNA, Czech Technical University in Prague, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings, Czech Republic

The paper presents potential for decreasing of organizational environmental impacts of public organizations on case study of Czech Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. It analyses actual organisation’s environmental impacts and sets several variants for their reduction by eight to twenty-three percent. The highest potential for improvement laid in renovation of windows and in increasing the efficiency of cooling of two big server rooms. On the other hand, the potential for reduction of organisation’s environmental impacts related to optimization of office operation was found in most of the observed environmental indicators only small or medium.

Poster no.: 33
A Preliminary Study on the Performance of Indoor Environment with Green BIM Tools - Taking Light Environment and Thermal Environment as an Example
CHEN Nien-tsu, Department of Interior Design, Tungfang Design Institute, Taiwan
CHEN Ying-sheng, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
TSAY Yaw-shyan, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
LIN Chuan-hsuan, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

This study plans to review and evaluate the interior design strategies corresponding to indoor light, and heat by introducing Green BIM tool into the indoor space planning and design stage, and takes an office space in Tainan as the practical operation object of interior design. According to the user requirement, with the assistance of Green BIM tool, the optimum design proposal meeting the Eco-Efficiency concept is proposed. The evaluation and analytical items involved in the Green BIM proposed in this study will be determined according to actual requirement, including heat insolation, and illumination analysis. Autodesk Revit was used as the main software tool to discuss how the Green BIM tool assists green design strategy in the present practical application of interior design for finding out optimum design program.

Poster no.: 34
Study on the Energy Efficiency of the Climatic Based Passive Design by Meinong Tobacco Barns in Kaohsiung
LI Yen-yi, ShuTe University / TSSBE (iiSBE-Taiwan), Taiwan
CHUNG Po-ren, Graduate School of Architecture, National ChengKung University, Taiwan
LIN Hisn-I, ShuTe University / TSSBE (iiSBE-Taiwan), Taiwan
TZENG Ping-chieh, Bureau of Public Works, Koahisung City Government, Taiwan
CHEN Chen-Yu, Department of Architecture, ChengKung University, Taiwan

There were lots of local buildings in rural area in Taiwan, which were over 40 years but still can afford the daily livings.  These cultural and typical types of buildings in some cultural small town represent for the unique building styles, and to arise the issue for the revival of the cultural building for more sustainable attitude.  This study is based on the requirement of this topic and following the policy of Kaohsiung City Government to renovate a traditional Tobacco Barns into more sustainable Kaohsiung LOHAS House.
The Tobacco Barns is a traditional house which combines the local industry of tobacco drying and a house living space, and this type of building is very popular and unique in Meinong district in Kaohsiung.  This study conducted the processes from local climate data analysis, which is based on the local elementary school.  The energy issue is the main target to verify the new possibility of the decisions to deal with the material and openings from eight orientations.  The AutoDesk-Ecotect analysis was adopted to make the integrated analysis processes which will be in the same model and analysis methodology.  The factors including heat load of transfer, indoor predicted temperature and daylighting situation were considered to make the comparison of the energy efficiency by the local common renovated material and opening styles.  The suggestions were conducted by the methodology and for the further comparison of different design proposal with results of maintenance evaluation and energy saving fee to let the house owner do the decision making.
In this study, through the collection of relevant literature, data integration and analysis, the results showed the cross analysis with four material of wood, rammed earth wall, concrete and bricks structure, with different opening rate is 20%, 50%, 80%, and with horizontal shading monolayer bilayer depth by 0, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.8 ratio. The simulations of thermal environment and light environment were both verified to make the calculation of the estimated efficiency.  The results can be used and references in this area for who wants to make the renovation.

Poster no.: 35
Sustainable Midfield Concourse Development at Hong Kong International Airport
Kevin POOLE, Airport Authority Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR

Buildings in Hong Kong account for about 90% of our electricity consumption and 60% of Hong Kong’s greenhouse gas emissions.  Using energy more efficiently would help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Through incorporating sustainable design features, new green buildings have an opportunity to significantly reduce energy demand, while delivering comfortable, healthy internal environments.  Situated to the west of Terminal 1 and between the two runways, the newly commissioned Midfield Concourse (MFC) is a major project recently delivered at Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA). The five-level concourse has a total floor area of 105,000m2 and is connected to Terminal 1 by an extension of the automated people mover (APM) system. There are 20 new aircraft parking stands that help increase the passenger handling capacity by over 10 million passengers per year.  Focusing on the MFC project as a case study, this paper describes how the early consideration of sustainable design principles and a systematic evaluation and prioritisation of the possible combination of passive design strategies and low-energy active design techniques can help take forward innovative ideas and sustainable design initiatives through the different stages of a project in delivering an energy efficient high-performance building.  The MFC serves as testament confirming HKIA’s commitment to being a green airport. Adopting a similar green design strategy for the planned Expansion of HKIA into a Three-Runway System will bring similar sustainability benefits for HKIA and Hong Kong.

Poster no.: 36
The Use of Recycled Aggregates for Full Depth of Sub-Base in Pavement Construction in Hong Kong
HUI Hok-tung, Highways Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR

Thousands of tons of inert construction & demolition (C&D) wastes are being generated from construction activities in Hong Kong daily.  The inert portion of the C&D wastes, including broken rocks, concrete and soil, are delivered to the two fill banks in Hong Kong, which only have limited stockpiling spaces.  In addition to the efforts made by the construction industry in minimizing the generation of C&D surplus, recycling of these inert C&D materials can surely alleviate the burden on the fill disposal facilities.  Recycled aggregates can be derived from these inert C&D wastes for use in many areas of construction.  One of the common applications of recycled aggregates is to be used in the sub-base layer for pavement construction.  In the past, recycled sub-base was used with the presence of a capping layer of virgin aggregates to avoid the phenomenon of cementation, which may affect the performance of the sub-base layer.  By addressing the cementation problem in recycled aggregates together with other measures to do away with the capping layer of virgin aggregates, the construction industry is encouraged to use recycled aggregates more extensively, which not only helps alleviating the capacity pressure at the fill banks, but also minimizes the use of natural resources by reducing the use of virgin aggregates.  This paper discusses the latest research studies by Highways Department in collaboration with The Hong Kong Polytechnic University on the use of recycled aggregates for full depth of sub-base material in pavement construction, the quality control of recycled aggregates, and the implementation as an alternative for sub-base construction in local distributors and feeder in the Hong Kong road network.

Poster no.: 37
Decision Making Process Assisted by Life Cycle Assessment: Greenhouse Gas Emission 
Ludimilla de Oliveira ZEULE, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
Laís David VINHAL, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
Sheyla Mara Baptista SERRA, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
Douglas BARRETO, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil

The concept of sustainability has been spreading in the construction industry, introducing tools and methods that may assist in the process of decision making and allowing improvements in management techniques as much as in production processes. Thus, this research aims the selection of materials by means of the proposition of a decision making method – the Choosing by Advantage (CBA) assisted by the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It was adopted a commonly employed component in temporary facilities of construction sites in the construction industry, the tiles. The adopted tiles were composed by recycled material (polyethylene – aluminum) and by non – recycled materials (galvanized steel). It was applied a multi-criteria methodology, in which the CBA method proposes the analysis of the best type of tile according to sustainability parameters – ecological, economic and social. In this study, LCA complements the CBA by means of the evaluation of environmental impacts, where the factor “Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (Emission CO2eq)” was examined as a factor generated by the transportation of the tiles from the factory to the authorized reseller.  By means of the implementation of the decision making method, it was verified the feasibility regarding the application of the LCA as a support tool to the CBA method for the selection of materials that cause less impact as a positively complementary methodology. It is concluded that the adopted methodology assists in the dissemination of sustainability in the stage of execution, according to a systemic approach based on sound information.

Poster no.: 38
Building Life Cycle Assessment: Investigation of Influential Factors in a Helpful Decision Tool
Marie-Lise Pannier, Mines ParisTech PSL Research University, France
Patrick Schalbart, Mines ParisTech PSL Research University, France
Bruno Peuportier, Mines ParisTech PSL Research University, France

A building life cycle assessment tool was developed and linked with an energy simulation tool, allowing to take into account the strong interactions between the energy and the environmental performance of buildings. This life cycle assessment tool was then extended at the urban level to evaluate the environmental impacts of a district including many buildings, streets, public spaces and technical network. Building and neighbourhood design alternatives can thus be compared, providing assistance in the decision process. However, the reliability of LCA tool is essential to guide the decision maker towards sustainability. A methodology is presented here to investigate the most uncertain inputs. Factors affecting the building energy performance, the building lifetime and the choice of the electricity mix were identified as the most influential factors which could alter the results’ robustness.

Poster no.: 39
Urban Regeneration Introduced with Resilient City Concept - A Case Study of Pingtung City in Taiwan
CHANG Kuei-feng, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
CHANG Wan-ting, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
LIUNG Hing-heng, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan
WONG Wei-jin, Pingtung County Government, Taiwan

Pingtung City, Pingtung County, Taiwan is an old city, and villages started to be established there around 1684. In 1836, defensive walls were constructed to prevent thieves and fights. The county was developed very early and is the central city on Pingtung Plain. During the Japanese Occupation Period (1907), Pingtung City, due to the establishment of railway station and sugar factory, attracted population and gradually formed the prototype of its urban plan. However, as time changes, Taiwan sugar industry loses its advantages. The extensive land owned by Taiwan Sugar in the south of Pingtung experienced slow transition. The previous Front Station and Back Station areas of the plane railway station are situated in the south and north of Pingtung City. Also, the urban development is featured by non-homogeneous growth. Besides, with the enhanced urban disaster-prevention awareness in recent years, the central hinterland of Pingtung is small but is an area where tons of dilapidated buildings are erected, suggesting that the space development of Pingtung City shall be renewed and reviewed.
“TRA Kaohsiung-Pingtung Chaojhou Rapid Transit Systematization Construction Project” brings new opportunities for the urban renewal of Pingtung City. To empty the land for the new project in the railway station, eliminate urban level crossing, implement the concept of resilient city, work with related major construction projects to continue to produce synergy, and respond to extreme climate and vulnerability in the earthquake zone, the Pingtung County government has embarked on overall and systematic planning and strategy planning of Pingtung's urban renewal, reviewing the land surrounding the Railway Station and planning transfer stations to integrate the railway and highway transit system. Also, it connects the traffic arteries of Front Station and Back Station and develops the business district in Front Station and Back Station in the form of urban renewal, hence fueling local sightseeing, leisure and business activities and guiding sustainable development and environmental optimization of Pingtung city.

Poster no.: 40
The Status and Operation Issues Related to Covered Playgrounds of Elementary Schools
HSIEH Hung-ren, National Ilan University, Taiwan 
LI Ming-da, National Ilan University, Taiwan

Taiwan often built campus gymnasiums to hold large gathering events and physical education activities in rainy, extremely hot and other harsh weather days. In recent years, based on the considerations of the rationalization of construction investment efficiency and building operation energy-saving, semi-outdoor gymnasiums, a covered playground, have been proposed as the corresponding program. However, whether the covered playground can meet the needs of the users remains yet to be verified. Therefore, this study took the covered playgrounds of elementary schools in Taiwan’s Yilan area as the research objects. The method of post-occupancy evaluation is used to explore the status and operation issues related to covered playgrounds’ spatial planning, physical environment, building facilities, and the use of spare parts.
The research results show that five categories of common activities are usually carried out in covered playgrounds, including physical education activities, sports competitions, performances, exhibitions, and gatherings. The most serious problem in terms of the spatial capacity of covered playgrounds is the inadequate buffer space and it also suffers the insufficient space height of the main ground for sports activities. There are also problems related to physical environments of covered playgrounds; sound environment related problems are caused by background noise interference; lighting environment related problems are caused by inadequate illumination and glare light interference; thermal environment related problems are caused by sunlight interference; and water environment related problems are caused by wind-driven rain. Besides, building facilities of covered playgrounds primarily comprise two types of equipment, namely, the electrical equipment and the AV equipment. Further, there are two types of spare parts, namely, spare parts for sport and those for gathering events.
Finally, based on the above findings, this study also made recommendations corresponding to architectural programming of elementary school covered playgrounds and as the reference for building or renewing the covered playgrounds in the future.

Poster no.: 41
Study of Public Mood Based on Sentiment Analysis in the City of Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
Munawir, The University of Kitakyushu, Japan; Cokroaminoto Palopo University, Indonesia
Fritz Akhmad NUZIR, Bandar Lampung University, Indonesia
Bart Julien DEWANCKER, The University of Kitakyushu, Japan

This study is an initial attempt to investigate public mood in the city by revealing relationships between opinion mining from online sources and real world phenomena based on sentiment analysis. The aim of the study is to determine potential of geo-tagging social media data, as well as offering possible new directions for city planners. We analyzed data from social media i.e. Twitter and generate a sentiment map of the city. We developed classifier tweets and emoticons to determine the mood of each tweet. We selected the city of Bandar Lampung as the case study. Bandar Lampung is the capital of Lampung Province with the population of over one million people. Moreover approximately 10% of the population in Bandar Lampung is within the age of 15-19. In Indonesia, this group of age represents 80% of the internet users. Therefore we would argue that the citizens of Bandar Lampung could provide sufficient social media data for this study. Sentiment analysis on social media data can offer better information for city planners and developers that can be used to improve planning and quality of life in the city.

Poster no.: 42
Estate Revitalization Scheme Ping Shek Estate: Pilot Project Completed
WONG Man-lung, Hong Kong Housing Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR
LAM Ho-yin, Hong Kong Housing Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR

Ping Shek Estate is a public rental housing estate owned by the Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA). It has been built over 40 years ago and was completed in 1971.  HKHA decided to implement the Estate Revitalization Scheme in 2010 to rejuvenate the estate.  According to the four core values of the HKHA, namely, caring, customer-focused, creative and committed, the estate facilities and environment were brought up to current standards.
Through the Scheme, traditional characteristics of the Estate were preserved and facilities renewed. The main improvement works included the provision of new lifts and escalators to enhance barrier-free access, a covered performance stage for special festive and community events, and covered walkways connecting main activity pockets, tactile guide-paths, and other activity zones so that the estate could provide a better living environment for tenants of all ages.
The main purpose of this project is to “preserve and enhance”. Hence no tree was felled during construction but more greeneries were introduced. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panels were installed to generate electricity for solar lightings. Natural lighting was used in a Well Being Centre and automatic irrigation system was used at green roof; and all these served to save electricity as well as reduce carbon emission.
With the change of population profile and living habits of residents, vacant market stalls were changed into a “Well Being Centre” for community use and surplus car parks were converted into a “Shopping Lane” with four new shops added.
The project demonstrates how a carefully planned and implemented revitalization project can help to transform our built environment to suit the changing needs of people and community. The project was successfully completed in 2014. It also received the Finalist Award in the Green Building Award 2014.

Poster no.: 43
The Study of Pavement Reconstruction Corresponding to Microclimate Cooling Efficiency in Elementary School Campus
KAO Kuo-sheng, Department of Computer and Communication, SHU-TE University, Taiwan
LIN Hung-chun, Grad. School of Architecture and Interior Design, SHU-TE University, Taiwan
LI Yen-yi, Grad. School of Architecture and Interior Design, SHU-TE University, Taiwan
CHUNG Po-ren, Graduate School of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
LIN Chia-hsiung, Department of Interior Design, SHU-TE University, Taiwan

In today's environment, the main reasons of "heat island effect" are causing by the architectural design techniques or design on the pavement. The imperfect building and the pavement in the environment will generate heat retention effect. Specific elementary school campus is chosen for integrated environmental assessment. The environmental improvement projects and the pavement design are taken into consideration at the stage of campus planning and design. These are all the factors affecting the campus microclimate. For the school with partial constructions, the renovation projects are categorized and the scientific method is adopted for collecting the data. The benefit assessment of the overall environmental factors can be used as decision-making for the future campus improvement. The goal of campus environmental quality and sustainable development will be achieved thought these effective campus design techniques.
The impact of environmental benefit assessment is carried out by practical measurement and numerical analysis. Stationary and mobile meteorological stations have been taken to analysis surface heat flux distribution of the case. The campus transform will lead to quality increased of the environment and also affect the situation of indoor living comfort. According to the preliminary results, the effective items of reconstruction projects have great influence on campus temperature. The campus microclimate modes are discussed and integrated accordingly. The analytics results are built up with the understanding of variations between the reconstruction items and campus micro-environment. Eventually, the actions will be implemented to the following cases need to be improved and strengthened in a timely manner.

Poster no.: 44
Kai Tak Development - Migrating Towards Vision
YING Fun-fong, Civil Engineering and Development Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR
Sunny LO, Civil Engineering and Development Department, Government of the HKSAR, Hong Kong SAR

Kai Tak Development (KTD) is a major harbourfront development at the heart of Hong Kong adopting sustainable development and environmentally-friendly concepts.  Its land use and development planning have gone through extensive public engagement exercises leading to a blueprint for the vision being “A distinguished, vibrant, attractive and people-oriented community by Victoria Harbour”. KTD is also the catalyst for re-energising the surrounding older districts and creating a new Central Business District for Hong Kong.
With the implementation timeframe spanning over a decade, KTD has already witnessed the completion of its first package of public works projects starting from 2013.  These projects include bio-remediation at the Kai Tak Approach Channel and Kwun Tong Typhoon Shelter together with associated drainage works which have notably improved the water quality and mitigated the odour issues associated with the water bodies.  Additional footbridges and revamp of existing pedestrian subways have enhanced the walking experience and connectivity between KTD and its neighbourhood.  New buildings at KTD comprising the Trade and Industry Tower, Energizing Kowloon East Office building, schools and sewage pumping stations have met the Building Environmental Assessment Method Plus, or BEAM Plus, green building ratings.  Kwun Tong Promenade and Runway Park Phase 1 at the former runway tip have become favourable rendezvous for the public to enjoy the waterfront.  In addition, continual efforts are maintained with a view to promoting sustainable built environment through application of District Cooling System, development of extensive green web with signature open spaces, revitalisation of heritage discovery, and opening up harbourfront area for public enjoyment.  This paper attempts to elucidate how KTD is planned and implemented in the quest for sustainability being the impetus of Hong Kong’s economic growth.

Poster no.: 45
Sustainable Interior Environments for Historic Buildings: A Case Study of the Presidential Palace of San Anton, Malta
Amber WISMAYER, University of Bath, United Kingdom
Carolyn S. HAYLES, INSPIRE @ UWTSD, Mount Pleasant Campus, United Kingdom
Nick MCCULLEN, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Historic buildings are notoriously difficult to adapt to suit contemporary requirements. Users retain modern expectations for functionality and comfort, whilst conservationists impose restrictions on adapting these buildings to suit these demands. Meanwhile, building professionals aspire to design sustainable interior environments for the occupants.
In this study, we assess the design of rooms in the Presidential Palace of San Anton in Malta, a historic building that currently serves diverse functions, including residential and administrative. This 17th century palace epitomises the climatic challenges for achieving functionality and comfort for occupants of heritage buildings in the Mediterranean and similar climates.
Although many of the rooms in the palace contain original fixtures and fittings, a significant proportion of its furnishings and window treatments are reproductions with no historic value. The latter could be substituted with aesthetically sympathetic solutions that would improve the functionality and comfort of these spaces.
In this paper, the results of a survey to establish how the internal layout of the rooms in the palace, their furnishings (furniture, appliances, and other movable articles including lighting and floor rugs), doors, windows and window treatments work for the occupants in their current design, is presented. Recommendations for improving the sustainability of these spaces are made.

Poster no.: 46
Café des Visions: How to Anticipate and Consolidate Urban Negotiation through Art; a Practice-based Artistic Research
Anna GRABER, Café des Visions, Switzerland

The Art in Public Spheres project Café des Visions establishes forums at unconventional locations in the public sphere to test new ways of discussing and working out together how public spaces shall be designed and used. 
The goal is to link ideas and spaces by gathering implicit knowledge from people on the street by using their everyday experience in public spaces as expertise and to make this knowledge artistically visible in a way that allows it to be put at the disposal of creators and users of public spaces while at the same time challenging and blurring their traditional roles. Or with the words of the French sociologist Henry Lefebvre: ‘City consumers shall become city producers.’
The artistic intervention Café des Visions serves as a nomadic research station transforming urban non-places into mobile village squares. Wishes for the restructuring of a specific public space are gathered there by interviewing guests at the café. The guests are invited to draw their wishes on the ground with white water-soluble paint. This gesture of inscribing the site with requests directly connects idea and space.
Café des Visions treats the constructed and the lived cities as if they were white spots on maps of ancient explorers. Data is gathered from drawings and logbooks, by semi-structured interviews and photographic investigation as well as by documenting the collected wishes. After the Café‘s intervention, the data is qualitatively analysed. The results are drawn typographically and published as city mappings on which wishes superimpose the grid of houses and streets.
The outcomes show everyday knowledge closely linked to the actual discourse in urban sociology or public space/public life studies. The artistic intervention provides knowledge created by open thinking, which is the starting point of any creative process and can serve as a first step in city development processes.

Poster no.: 47
The Exploration of Sustainable Neighbourhoods - A Case Study of Shenyang

LI Li-hong, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Mainland China
WANG Zhuo, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Mainland China

Sustainable neighbourhoods have become more and more popular in the world recently, but they encounter numerous obstacles when developed in China, the obstacles are mainly as followed: policy system, legislation system, management mode and living concepts of residents and others. Firstly, sustainable neighbourhoods are interpreted in this paper, and the worldwide successful experience of sustainable neighbourhoods at the present stage is summarized. On this account, based on the specific circumstance of Shenyang, the sustainable neighbourhoods are designed from the aspect of how to strengthen the controlling by legal and policy system and technical architecture, how to build the target monitoring and feed respective interests, and how to innovate cooperation and safeguard mechanism, and so on. And the planning concept and control strategy of the sustainable neighbourhoods in Shenyang are built in this paper so as to promote the sound and fast development of sustainable neighbourhoods in Shenyang and even China.

Poster no.: 48
Study on the Shading Performance of Expanded Metal Mesh
LIN Chien-hsun, Department of Architecture,National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
TSAY Yaw-shyan, Department of Architecture,National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
YANG Jhih-hong, Department of Architecture,National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
YANG Yu-fang, Shang Kai Steel Co., Ltd.,Taiwan

Recently, architects have praised expanded metal mesh for its visual penetration and shading performance and thus applied it as an element in the façade design of many buildings. In Taiwan’s “Technical Code for the Energy Conservation Design of Buildings”, the energy conservation efficiency of a building’s perforated metal sheets can be determined using the shading factor Ki, which is related only to perforation rate.
However, some previous studies on perforated metal sheets have suggested that material, color, emissivity, opening shape, and distribution can also influence their energy saving performance. Some studies have even demonstrated that when expanded metal mesh is used for shading purposes, different specific angles of solar radiation can have a significant impact on the energy conservation effect. This phenomenon occurs because the opening form of expanded metal mesh is a type of three-dimensional pattern.
In this study, we built an experimental house with a single room and performed field measurements to investigate the shading performance of expanded metal mesh. We selected three types of expanded metal mesh with different opening forms for comparison and two types of installation angles (upward/downward) to determine the influence of solar angle. The results show that the practical shading factor in downward installation cases is lower than that in the building code, which means that the higher shading performance can be evaluated. When the perforation rates are similar, expanded metal mesh with larger holes have shown better shading performance than that with small openings. However, we found significant reduction in shading performance when the expanded metal mesh was installed upward, which is important for architects in their designs. 

Poster no.: 49
The Research of Enhancing the Performance of Impact Sound Insulation on Wooden Structure Floor
LIN Fang-ming, National Pingtung University of science and technology, Taiwan
FENG Chun-hao, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
TSAI Yueh-han, National Pingtung University of science and technology, Taiwan

Wooden material is one of the eco-friendly materials with high sustainability. It is on the spotlight recently and getting higher standing in the world, especially countries drew up the regulations of green building and eco building material. But the performance of impact sound insulation of wooden structure floor cannot reach the same level as RC floor. In order to enhance the capability of wooden structure floor, this research set up the wooden structure floor referring by relative regulations, and conformed the performance of Ln,t,w accorded with the regulations, then investigated the effects of impact sound with various covering/surface materials. The result indicates the performance can be raised by putting resilient materials under the covering materials. As for raised wooden floor, the capabilities of impact sound insulation can be improved by inserting the rubber or glass wool under the beams. 

Poster no.: 50
Construction of Green Residences for Ecological Immigrants - A Case Study of Ningqiang Area in The South of Shaanxi Province
HE Jiao, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
LI Jing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
LIU Yu, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Mainland China
WANG Ding, Shanghai Construction NO.4(Group)Co,Ltd.Architectural Design & Research Institute, Mainland China

The south of Shaanxi province in China is an important conservation area for “the South-to-North Water Diversion Project” and “the Han-to-Weihe River Water Diversion Project” of China. It possesses both unique ecological environments and rich historical and cultural heritages. In order to protect the source of Han River, the local government in this area has implemented a large-scale ecological immigration policy since 2013. At present, it is urgent to construct energy-saving and environmental-friendly rural residences for the immigrants. This paper analyses the characteristics of natural ecosystem, society and culture in Ningqiang Area in the South of Shaanxi Province, discusses the survey results of the traditional residences and the new houses for the immigrants, explores approaches to the design and construction of contemporary green rural residences with regional characteristics and sense of belonging, and makes suggestions for the sustainable development of green rural residences for the ecological immigrants.

Poster no.: 51
Optimization of Packing Density Parameters for Reduction of Cement Content in Interlocking Concrete Block Pavers
Chamod Kosala HETTIARACHCHI, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Wasantha Kumara MAMPEARACHCHI, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Particle packing optimization is a process of selecting optimum aggregate proportions that result in minimum voids and maximum density thus requirement of cement and water can be minimized. The concept of particle packing is adopted to determine sustainable concrete mix for interlocking concrete block pavers (ICBP). Typically the aggregates used for the ICBP are 12mm coarse aggregates with manufactured sand and natural sand as fine aggregates. Fresh concrete is poured into the mold and both vibration and compaction is applied to cast the block. The mold is removed soon after the block is cast. Hence a low water cement ratio and high green strength needs to prevent edge falling and cracking of freshly cast ICBP. Present industrial practice seems to be far less economical due to the use of high amount of cement, wastage of aggregates, and high energy consumption of machines due to improper mix proportions. Hence high strength variations within the same batch is visible. Theoretical packing models such as Toufar, De-Larrad, CPM, LPDM, Powers, Shilstone chart were analysed to determine the most suitable packing model. This study proposes improved sustainable mix design using packing density method by optimization of parameters such as water-cement ratio, coarse to fine aggregate ratio, quarry dust to natural sand ratio, cement content and compaction effort. Trial mixes were tested increasing excessive cement content from 20% to 40% in 5% intervals. The water cement ratio of 0.32-0.36 is suitable with 65-70% of fine aggregates. Further, 65-70% of manufactured sand (as a percentage of total fine aggregate) should be used to maintain green strength of the mix. Optimum vibration time should be 5-7 seconds with an optimum compression of 1.7 -2.0 MPa. The study reveals that optimization of mixture design parameters can reduce the cement content by 30% while maintaining the same concrete strength.

Poster no.: 52
Development of a Functional Interior Material Using Scallop Shell Lime
Hinako UEHARA, Kogakuin University, Japan
Yusuke NAKAJIMA, Kogakuin University, Japan

About 360,000 tons of scallop are unloaded in Japan now, and most of them are concentrated in Hokkaido. The illegal dumping of the scallop shell became the problem, but the recycling rate largely rose by subsidies in late years. However, subsidies are not necessarily continuing permanently.
It was found that scallop shell lime is a natural material with little environmental load and high environmental performance, such as effects of humidity control, absorbing smells and VOC, and preventing mold. In addition, water resistance was confirmed by polished finish, this performance is not appeared in general lime made from limestone.
In this paper, water resistance and environmental performances are compared between scallop shell lime and general lime.
From the result of the examination, it was found that the examination body of the scallop shell lime with polished finish could have both humidity control effect and water resistance performance. From these results, it is anticipated that the scallop shell lime with polished finish is effective as an interior material of the places such as restroom or kitchen.
In addition, in the investigation about the water resistant mechanism, a prediction that expression of water resistance is influenced by the speed of carbonation was provided.

Poster no.: 53
Research on Environmental Safety of Nanomodified Building Materials
Petr ZHUK, Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy), Russia

The research methodology includes two directions: 1 ecotoxicological; 2 construction materials life cycle analysis. Ecotoxicological researches suggest definition of nanocomponents specifications, tracking of spreading medium, methods for identification of nano-particles in the environment (microscopic, chromatographic, spectroscopic and diffractive). The life cycle analysis was conducted on the base of approaches from risk theory, with the use of graph theory as well, which allowed to consider maximum amount of factors during materials or constructions exploitation under different conditions.
As results of the research, classification of nanomodified construction materials was introduced, risks of cytotoxic components invasion in geosphere components were analyzed, some dependences of nanocomponents toxicity from abiotic factors were studied. Under the method for assessment of environmental safety of nanomodifyied construction materials an approach allowing to consider both positive and negative effect of their utilization at the same time is proposed.
At the stage of designing materials and specific building elements with the use of nanomodifying additions one should foresee both positive and possible negative consequences for the environment. The article proposes ranging environmental risks for certain constructions, materials, nanomodified additions with different areas of use in construction. Approaches to reducing negative impacts on the environment when using certain nanomodifying components are developed.

Funding Organisations

WSBE17 Hong Kong Belongs to

International Co-Owners

Copyright © 2016 The Hong Kong Green Building Council. All Rights Reserved.  |  Privacy Policy

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material/event (or by members of the project team) do not reflect the views of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Innovation and Technology Commission or the Vetting Committee of the General Support Programme of the Innovation and Technology Fund.